Sources and References Chapter 5: Ground Control

This chapter describes how disease and pest control is sometimes enhanced by different elements in the natural world.

Pages 131-136. For the research that underpins the section on Indian vultures, see: Markandya, A. Taylor, T. Longo, A. Murty, MN. – Murty, S. – Dhavala, KK. (2008). Counting the Cost of Vulture Decline – An Appraisal of the Human Health and other Benefits of Vultures in India. Ecological Economics, 67, 194–204.

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Page 134. I mention SAVE, and organization working to restore vulture populations in India. You can find out more about their work via their web site.

Page 136. For more on how Lyme disease infections in people is affected by mammal density see: LoGiudice, K. Ostfeld, RS. Schmidt, KA. and Keesing, F. (2003). The ecology of infectious disease: Effects of host diversity and community composition on Lyme disease risk. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(2): 567–571. This paper can be found online.

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Page 137-138. The work looking at how bird diversity could be a factor in limiting the spread of West Nile Virus to humans, see: Swaddle, JP. Calos, SE. (2008). Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated with Lower Incidence of Human West Nile Infection: Observation of the Dilution Effect. PLoS ONE 3(6): e2488. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002488.

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Pages 138-140. For the work that estimated the beneficial effects of great tits predating pests in a Dutch orchard, see: Mols, CM, Visser, ME. (2007). Great Tits (Parus major) Reduce Caterpillar Damage in Commercial Apple Orchards. PLoS ONE 2(2): e202. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000202

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Pages 140-141. On the control of insect pests in Jamaican coffee plantations, see: Johnson, MD. Kellermann, JL. and Stercho, AM. (2009) Pest reduction services by birds in shade and sun coffee in Jamaica. Animal Conservation. Vol. 13. 140–147. This paper can be found online.

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Pages 142-143. I write about the beneficial impacts on evening grosbeaks in forestry plantations where they control budworms. The paper behind this part of the book is: Takekawa, J. Y., and E. O. Garton. 1984. How much is an evening grosbeak worth? J. Forestry 82(7):426-427. This paper can be found online.

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Page 145. For a source how beetles control pear sucker pests see this:

Page 147. On biological control of crop pests, I talk about a few examples, including that of the alfalfa weevil. Background on this subject can be found at:

Pages 148-149. When it comes to Mao’s war on pests and how this might have contributed to worse famine, there are quite a few sources. For example see: Whelan, CJ. et. al., (2008). Ecosystem Services Provided by Birds, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1134: 25—60. “Whelan remarks that “Although information is only anecdotal, apparently the ’war against the sparrows,’ part of a pest-control campaign launched in China during Mao Zedong’s Great Leap Forward, led to massive increases in pest insects and, thus, crop damage, ultimately contributing to a catastrophic famine from 1958—1962 in which 30 million Chinese died from starvation.” This source can be found online.

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