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Anthropocene Footnotes

A technical problem in the process of production introduced minor errors to the first printing.

Here is a link to a PDF of the errata.

Here is a link to the corrected Geologic Timescale Chart on page 50.

 

Prologue Writing in the Sky 

1.  Source: extensive interview with Paul J. Crutzen, 2013 and: http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1995/crutzen-lecture.pdf

2.  John R. McNeill, Something New Under the Sun: An Environmental History of the Twentieth-Century World. New York: Norton, 2001.

3.  I interviewed Bert Bolin in this function during the UN Climate Change Conference (COP1): Christian Schwägerl, “Umweltexperte: Kosten leider kein Thema in Berlin”, Süddeutsche Zeitung, April 7, 1995.

4.  From an extensive interview with Paul Crutzen in summer 2013.

5.  Described in: Paul J. Crutzen, “Estimates of Possible Variations in Total Ozone Due to Natural Causes and Human Activities”, Ambio, vol. 3, no. 6 (1974): 201–210.

6.  Paul J. Crutzen, “My life with O3, NOx, and other YZOxs”. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1995. See also: http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1995/crutzen-lecture.pdf

7.  Joe Farman et al: “Large losses of total ozone layer in Antarctica reveal seasonal CIOx/NOinteraction”, Nature, vol. 315.

8. See: http://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/antarctic-ozone-hole-slightly-smaller-than-average-this-year/

9.  If increasing amounts of carbon dioxide in the lower atmosphere prevent the sun’s rays from reaching Earth’s surface, it will become colder where the ozone layer is. Such an effect led to the first formation of a large ozone hole over the North Pole in 2011, to the surprise of explorers. See: Gloria L. Manney et al., “Unprecedented Arctic ozone loss in 2011”, Nature, vol. 478, (2011): 469–475.

10.  Quoted from a commentary by Will Steffen on Paul J. Crutzen and Eugene F. Stoermer, “The ‘Anthropocene’ (2000),” in Libby Robin, Sverker Sörlin and Paul Warde (eds.): The Future of Nature, (2013): Yale University Press as well as personal communication with Will Steffen.

 

One Welcome to the Club of Revolutionaries

11. Documentation for Berlin’s geographical spot having traveled from the South polar region to its current location may be found in several sources: Stampfli, Gérard M., Jürgen F. von Raumer & Gilles D. Borel, “Paleozoic evolution of pre-Variscan terranes: From Gondwana to the Variscan collision,” Geological Society of America Special Paper 364, 2002 and in Cocks, L.R.M. and T.H. Torsvik, “European geography in a global context from the Vendian to the end of the Palaeozoic,” Geological Society, London, Special publications, 2006.

12. Alex Halliday, “The Origin of the Moon,” Science, vol. 338, no. 6110 (2012): 1040–1041; Matija Cuk and Sarah Stewart, “Making the Moon from a Fast-Spinning Earth: A Giant Impact Followed by Resonant Despinning,” Science, vol. 338, no. 6110 (2012): 1047–1052.

13. See seminal article of Lynn Sagan, “On the origin of mitosing cells,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol.14 no.3, March 1967.

14. Sallie W. Chisholm et al., “A novel free-living prochlorophyte abundant in the oceanic euphotic zone”, Nature, 1988, vol. 334 (1988): 340–343 and F. Partensky et al. “Prochlorococcus, a marine photosynthetic prokaryote of global significance”, Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews vol. 63 (1999): 106–27.

15. Joseph Priestley, “Observations on Different Kinds of Air,” Philosophical Trans­actions of the Royal Society, 62, (1772): 147–264, quoted from Malcolm Dick (ed.), Joseph Priestley and Birmingham, Brewin Books (2005).

16. The biographical details were obtained from the Institute from Biomedical Problems in Moscow in a personal communication, April 2010.

17. Personal communication with Prof. A.G. Degermendzhi, Director of the Institute of Biophysics and Prof. A.A Tikhomirov, Director of the International Center for Closed Ecosystems in Krasnoyarsk, April 2010.

18. Frank B. Salisbury et al., “Bios-3: Siberian Experiments in Bioregenerative Life Support,” BioScience, vol. 47 (1997): 575–585.

19. John Allen has written an autobiography: John Allen, Me and the Biospheres, Synergetic Press, Santa Fe, NM, 2009.

20. John Allen et al., “The Legacy of Biosphere 2 for the study of Biospherics and closed ecological systems,” Advances in Space Research, vol. 31, no. 7 (2003):1629–1639.

21. Personal communication with John Allen.

22. Most of the key published papers are available at  www.globalecotechnics.com. Elsevier special edition: Biosphere 2 Research Past and Present, eds.. B.D.V. Marino, H.T. Odum, Ecological Engineering Special Issue, Vol. 13, Nos. 1-4, Elsevier Science, 1999.

23. http://wordlesstech.com/2013/11/26/tomato-space/

 

Two The Long March

24.  Recommended literature on the evolutionary history of consciousness: Giulio Tononi, Phi: A Voyage from the Brain to the Soul, New York: Pantheon, 2012.

25.  Eva Bianconi et al., “An estimation of the number of cells in the human body,” Annals of Human Biology, 5 July 2013.

26.  Excellent further reading on this subject in: Jan Zalasiewicz, The Planet in a Pebble: A Journey into Earth‘s Deep History, Oxford University Press, 2010.

27.  See also Erle Ellis’ article “Conserving a Used Planet: Embracing Our History as Transformers of Earth,” Snap Magazine,  http://www.snap.is/magazine/embracing-our-history-as-transformers-of-earth/

28.  For a general depiction of the history of the climate, see Jan Zalasiewicz and Mark Williams, The Goldilocks Planet: The Four Billion Year Story of the Earth’s Climate, Oxford University Press, 2012.

29.  For a comprehensible description of human evolution, see Alice Roberts, Evolution —The Human Story, Dorling Kindersley, 2011

30.  On the first modern humans in Europe, see Stefano Benazzi et al., “Early dispersal of modern humans in Europe and implications for Neanderthal behaviour,” Nature, vol. 479, no. 7374, November 2 (2011): 525–528. On the first modern humans in Australia, see Morten Rasmussen et al., “An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia,” Science, vol. 334, no. 6052, October 7 (2011): 94–98.

31. Dálen, Love, “Partial genetic turnover in neandertals,” Molecular Biology and Evolution, February 23, 2012.

32.  David R. Montgomery, Dirt: The Erosion of Civilizations, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.

33.  Andrew Moore et al., Village on the Euphrates: From Foraging to Farming at Abu Hureyra, Oxford University Press, 2000.

34.  See Gowri Koneswaran and Danielle Nierenberg, “Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and Mitigating Climate Change,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 116, no. 5 (January 2008):578–582 and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), “World agriculture–towards 2015/2030,” Rome, 2002 and FAO and OECD, “Agricultural Outlook 2009–2018”, Rome, 2009.

35.  A very good overview of the ascent of human civilization in Asia and Europe can be found in Ian Morris’s book with the slightly misleading title, Why the West Rules for Now: The Patterns of History and What They Reveal About the Future, Profile Books, 2011.

36. Paul Salopek keeps a fascinating online journal about his project, see: www.outofedenwalk.com.

 

Three The End of the Holocene

37.  The short film of a circumnavigation of Earth by the International Space Station astronauts is a must-see: http://vimeo.com/32001208.

38.  Karen C. Seto et al., “Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools”, PNAS, August 16, 2012: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3479537/

39.  http://www.who.int/gho/mortality_burden_disease/life_tables/situation_trends_text/en/index.html

40.  Stephen Emmott, Ten Billion, London: Vintage, 2013.

41.  See: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/oct/31/seven-billionth-baby-born-philippines

42.  Population Reference Bureau, 2009 World Population Sheet, Washington, DC, 2009.

43.  UNFPA, “State of World Population 2007: Unleashing the Potential of Urban Growth,” 2007: 45, https://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/documents/publi-cations/2007/695_filename_sowp2007_eng.pdf

44. Jan Zalasiewicz, in Nina Möllers and Christian Schwägerl, “Anthropozän Natur und Technik im Menschenzeitalter,” catalog for the eponymous exhibition at the Deutsches Museum, Munich, 2014.

45. James Syvitski and A. Kettner, “Sediment flux and the Anthropocene”, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, vol. 369, no. 1938 (2011): 957–975, and James Syvitski et al. “Sinking deltas due to human activities,” Nature Geoscience, vol. 2, no. 10 (2009): 681–686.

46.  As a visual aid, see also James Syvitski, “Humanity’s Planet: Dams in the US 1800–2003,” on YouTube.com.

47.  Bruce H. Wilkinson, “Humans as geologic agents: A deep-time perspective,” Geology, vol. 33, no. 3 (November 2004): 161–164 http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/33/3/161.abstract

48.  P.M. Vitousek, “Beyond global warming: ecology and global change,” Ecology, vol. 75: 1861–1876.

49.  James Syvitski and A. Kettner, “Sediment flux and the Anthropocene,” op. cit.

50.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), “The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture,” Rome, 2012, http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i2727e/i2727e00.htm

51.  FAO and World Bank, The Sunken Billions. The Economic Justification for Fisheries Reform, Rome/Washington DC, 2008.

52.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), “The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture,” op. cit.

53.  Tony Barboza, “No ‘island’ of tsunami debris floating toward US, NOAA says,” Los Angeles Times, November 6, 2013, http://www.latimes.com/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-tsunami-debris-noaa-20131106,0,3159522.story

54. Matthew Hansen et al., “High-Resolution Global Maps of 21st Century Forest Cover Change,” Science, 15 November 2013, vol. 342, no. 6160: 850–853 and Betsy Mason, “Incredible High-Resolution Interactive Map of the World’s Shrinking Forests,” Wired Online, November 14, 2013, http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2013/11/google-earth-deforestation/

55.  Jianchu Xu, “China‘s new forests aren’t as green as they seem,” Nature, vol. 477, 371, (September 21, 2011).

56.  Michael Heckenberger et al., “Amazonia 1492: Pristine Forest or Cultural Park­land?” Science, vol. 301, no. 5640 (September 19 2003):1710–1714, DOI10.1126/science.1086112.

57.  Erle Ellis and Navin Ramankutty, “Putting people in the map: anthropogenic biomes of the world,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol. 6, no. 8, (2008): 439-447 and Erle Ellis and Navin Ramankutty, “Anthropogenic biomes,” Encyclopedia of Earth, Cutler J. Cleveland (ed.), Washington, DC, 2009.

58.  See personal website of the artist www.david-thomas-smith.com.

59.  International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2012, Paris: IEA, 2012.

60. op.cit

61.  For a graphic representation of CO2 emissions, see the Oxford University project at http://trillionthtonne.org.

62.  UNESCO and UNEP, The Global Carbon Cycle, Paris: UNESCO, November 2009.

63. PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Trends in global CO2 emissions: 2013 Report, Den Haag, 2013.

64.  Global Carbon Project, International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, Novem­ber 19, 2013, http://www.igbp.net/news/news/news/annualglobalcarbonemissionssettoreach–record36billiontonnesin2013.5.30566fc6142425d6c91195a.html

65.  Dr. Thomas Dittmar, Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, personal communication, August 2011.

66.  Jeremy Jackson, “Ecological extinction and evolution in the brave new ocean,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 105, suppl. 1, August 12 2008: 11458–465.

67.  Andreas J. Andersson et al., “Partial offsets in ocean acidification from changing coral reef biogeochemistry,” Nature Climate Change, published online, November 17, 2013, http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nclimate2050.html

68.  The Seattle Times together with the Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting published an excellent yet alarming report on ocean acidification entitled “Sea Change”, September 12, 2013, http://apps.seattletimes.com/reports/sea-change/2013/sep/11/pacific-ocean-perilous-turn-overview/

69.  Timothy Lenton, Hans Joachim Schellnhuber et al., “Tipping elements in the Earth’s climate system,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 105, no. 6, (February 12, 2008): 1786–1793.

70.  For an overview of the ocean in the Anthropocene see Davor Vidas, “The Anthropocene and the International Law of the Sea,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society –A, vol. 369 (2011): 909–925.

71.  For continual measured data, see http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/

72.  IPCC, Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis, Geneva, Switzerland, 2013.

73.  Kevon Cowtan and Robert G. Way, “Coverage bias in the HadCRUT4 temperature series and its impact on recent temperature trends,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, October, 2013, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/qj.2297/abstract

74.  Terry Gerlach, “Volcanic versus anthropogenic carbon dioxide,” EOSTransactions of the American Geophysical Union, vol. 92, no. 24, (14 June 2011): 201–208.

75.  A. Kleidon, “How does the earth system generate and maintain thermodynamic disequilibrium and what does it imply for the future of the planet?,” contribution to Theme Issue “Influence of Nonlinearity and Randomness in Climate Prediction,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Ahttp://arxiv.org/pdf/1103.2014v2.pdf

76.  Anthony D. Barnosky et al., “Has the Earth’s sixth mass extinction already arrived?” Nature, (March 3, 2011) vol. 471, no. 51–57.

77.  See also the outstanding books by Edward O. Wilson and Jean-Christophe Vié et al., Wildlife in a Changing World—An Analysis of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Gland: IUCN 2009 and Arthur D. Chapman, Numbers of living species in Australia and the world, Canberra: Australian Biodiversity Information Service, 2009.

78.  Vaclav Smil, The Earth‘s Biosphere: Evolution, Dynamics, and Change, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002, quoted in Gaia Vince, “A Global Perspective on the Anthropocene,” Science, (7 October 2011) 32-37.

79.  Jared Diamond, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, New York: Penguin, 2011.

80.  Callum Roberts, The Unnatural History of the Sea, Washington DC: Shearwater, 2009.

81.  See www.climatenamechange.org

82.  Charles H. Langmuir and Wally Broecker, How to Build a Habitable Planet: The Story of Earth from the Big Bang to Humankind, Princeton University Press, 2012.

83.  Andrew Revkin has compared the developmental stage of our species with puberty: http://dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/09/20/maturing-teens-maturing-species/

84.  See “NASA’s Hubble Shows Milky Way is Destined for Head-On Collision,” May 31, 2012, http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/science/milky-way-collide.html

 

Four Signals of Time

85.  Georges-Louis LeClerc Comte de Buffon, Des époques de la nature, in: “Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière.” Supplement Vol. V, Paris, Imprimeries royale, 1778. For a general history of time computation, see also Daniel Rosenberg and Anthony Grafton, Cartographies of Time: A History of the Timeline, Princeton Architectural Press, 2010.

86.  My favorite example of these absurdities is the website http://creation.com/age-of-the-earth. Creationists argue that Earth is extremely young while showing a picture of Venus.

87.   International Chronostratigraphic Chart, see http://www.stratigraphy.org/

88.  Andrew Revkin, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast, Abbeville Press, 1992, quoted in Will Steffen et al. “The Anthropocene: conceptual and historical perspectives,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc., A 13, vol. 369, no. 1938 (March 2011): 842-86.

89.  Quoted from J. Grinevald, La Biosphère de l’Anthropocène: climat et pétrole, la double menace, Editions Médecine and Hygiène, Geneva, Switzerland, Repères transdisciplinaires, 2007: 243.

90.  Paul J. Crutzen and Eugene F. Stoermer, IGBP Newsletter 41, (May 2000), http://www.igbp.net/news/opinion/opinion/haveweenteredtheanthropocene.html

91.  Paul J. Crutzen, “Geology of Mankind,” Nature, vol. 415, no. 23, (2002).

92.  Will Steffen, Paul J. Crutzen and John R. McNeill, “The Anthropocene: Are Humans Now Overwhelming the Great Forces of Nature?,” Ambio, vol. 36, no. 8, (December 2000): 614-621.

93.  James Syvitski, Anthropocene, “An epoch of our making,” Global Change, issue 78, (March 2012): 14. The figures are the number of hits displayed by my own computer, on 21 November 2013.

94.  Richard Helgerson, “The Folly of Maps and Modernity, Literature, Mapping and the Politics of Space” in Early Modern Britain, Andrew Gordon and Bernhard Klein (eds.), Cambridge University Press, 2001:241-262.

95.  Carl von Carlowitz, Sylvicultura Oeconomica oder haußwirthliche Nachricht und Naturmäßige Anweisung zur Wilden Baum-Zucht, second edition reprint, Leipzig: heirs of the late Johann Friedrich Braun, 1732, Remagen-Oberwinter: Verlag Kessel, 2009.

96.  Alexander von Humboldt, Kosmos—Entwurf einer physischen Weltbeschreibung, (Cosmos—a General Survey of Physical Phenomena of the Universe) second volume, Stuttgart and Tübingen: F. G. Cotta’scher Verlag, 1847.

97.  Antonio Stoppani, Corso di Geologia, Verlag: G. Bernardoni, E.G. Brigola Editori 1871-1873, Milano, 1871, quoted in W.C. Clarke et al., “Sustainable Development of the Biosphere”, Environment, vol. 29, issue 9, (1987): 25-27. 

98.  George P. Marsh, Man and Nature, New York, C. Scribner, 1864, quoted from the edition edited by David Lowenthal, Harvard University Press, 1965

99.  Ernst Fischer, “Der Mensch als geologischer Faktor,” Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, vol. 67, (1915): 106-149.

100. R.L. Sherwood, Man as a geological agent—an account of his action on inanimate nature, London: H.F. & G. Witherby, 1922.

101.  Edwin Fels, Der Mensch als Gestalter der Erde, Bibliographisches Institut AG in Leipzig, Leipzig, 1935

102.  Vladimir Vernadsky, Geochemistry and the Biosphere, Synergetic Press, Santa Fe, NM, 2007; Vladimir Vernadsky, La Biosphere, Librairie Felix Alcan, Nouvelle collection scientifique, Paris, 1929; Édouard Le Roy, Les origines humaines et l’evolution de l’intelligence, Paris, 1928; Teilhard de Chardin, “Hominization,” (1923), and Teilhard de Chardin, The Phenomenon of Man, Paris, 1955. The latter is available online at https://archive.org/details/ThePhenomenonOfMan

103.  Hubert Markl, Natur als KulturaufgabeÜber die Beziehung des Menschen zur lebendigen Natur, DVA, 1986.

104.  See Jan Zalasiewicz et al., “Are we now living in the Anthropocene?,” Geological Society of America Today, vol. 18, no. 2, (2007): 4-8 and the task group’s website: http://quaternary.stratigraphy.org/workinggroups/anthropocene/

105.  Jan Zalasiewicz et al., “Stratigraphy of the Anthropocene,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, A 369 (2011): 1036-1055.

106.  Nature magazine editorial board, “The human epoch,” Nature, vol. 473, (19 May 2011): 254, see http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v473/n7347/full/473254a.html.

107.  “Welcome to the Anthropocene,” The Economist, 26 May 2011.

108.  Axel Bojanowski and Christian Schwägerl, “Debatte um neues Erdzeitalter: Was vom Menschen übrigbleibt,” (Debate on a new geological Epoch: The traces left by Man) Spiegel Online, 4 July 2011.

109.  Stanley C. Finney, The ‘Anthropocene’ as a ratified unit in the ICS International Chronostratigraphic Chart: fundamental issues that must be addressed by the Task Group, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, first published October 24, 2013; doi 10.1144/SP395.9.

110.  S. C. Finney, “The ‘Anthropocene’ as a ratified unit in the ICS International Chronostratigraphic Chart: op. cit., see footnote 102.

111.  David Biello, “How long have humans dominated the planet?,” Scientific American Online, (December 6, 2013), http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=length-of-human-domination&WT.mc_id=SA_Facebook

112.  Jan Zalasiewicz et al., “The mineral signature of the Anthropocene in its deep-time context,” 2013. In: A Stratigraphical Basis for the Anthropocene. Geological Society, London, Special Publications: 395. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP395.2

113.  Agnieszka Galuszka, Assessing the Anthropocene with geochemical methods, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, first published October 24, 2013; doi 10.1144/SP395.5.

114.  Mark Williams, Jan A. Zalasiewicz et al., Is the fossil record of complex animal behavior a stratigraphical analogue for the Anthropocene? Geological Society, London, Special Publications, first published October 25, 2013; doi 10.1144/SP395.8.

115.  M. Edgeworth, The relationship between archaeological stratigraphy and artificial ground and its significance in the Anthropocene, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, first published October 25, 2013; doi 10.1144/SP395.3.

116. Logan Mitchell et al., “Constraints on the Late Holocene Anthropogenic Contribution to the Atmospheric Methane Budget,” Science, vol. 342, no. 6161, (22 November 2013): 964-966.

117.  Richard A. Kerr, “Humans Fueled Global Warming Millennia Ago,” Science, vol. 342, no. 6161, (22 November 2013): 918.

118.  William F. Ruddiman, “The anthropogenic greenhouse era began thousands of years ago,” Climatic Change, vol. 61 (2003): 261–293.

119.  Bruce D. Smith, Melinda Zeder, “The onset of the Anthropocene,” Anthropocene, vol. 4, December 2013, online 4 June  2013, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213305413000052

120. Whitney J. Autin and John M. Holbrook, “Is the Anthropocene an issue of stratigraphy or pop culture?” GSA Today, 22, vol. 7 (2012): 60–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/G153GW.1.

121.  P. L. Gibbard and M. J. C. Walker, “The term ‘Anthropocene’ in the context of formal geological classification,” Geological Society, London, Special Publications, first published October 25, 2013; doi 10.1144/SP395.1.

122. Axel Bojanowski and Christian Schwägerl, “Debatte um neues Erdzeitalter: op. cit., see footnote 108.

123.  Stanley C. Finney, The ‘Anthropocene’ as a ratified unit in the ICS International Chronostratigraphic Chart, op. cit., see footnote 109.

124.  I am not referring here so much to published sources as to many valuable discussions that took place during the Anthropocene Project at the Haus der Kulturen der Welt in Berlin, see http://www.hkw.de/en/programm/projekte/2014/anthropozaen/anthropozaen_2013_2014.php

125. Rafael E. Núñez and Eve Sweetser, “With the future behind them: convergent evidence from Aymara language and gesture in the crosslinguistic comparison of spatial construals of time,” Cognitive Science, vol. 30 (2006): 1–49. http://www.ppls.ed.ac.uk/ppig/documents/NSaymaraproofs.pdf

126. Daniel Everett, Don’t Sleep, There are Snakes: Life and Language in the Amazonian Jungle, London: Profile Books, 2009.

127.  Chris Lorenz and Berber Bevernage (eds.), Breaking up Time: Negotiating the Borders between Present, Past and Future, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2013.

128. Daniel Rosenberg and Anthony Grafton, Cartographies of Time: A History of the Timeline, Princeton Architectural Press, 2010.

129. For a graphic display of carbon dioxide emissions, see the project by Oxford University at http://trillionthtonne.org

130. World Resources Institute, “Navigating the numbers—Greenhouse Gas Data and International Climate Policy,” Washington, DC, 2005, http://pdf.wri.org/navigating_numbers.pdf

131. Jim Yardley, “Bangladesh pollution told in colors and smells,” New York Times Online, July 14, 2013, see http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/15/world/asia/bangladesh-pollution-told-in-colors-and-smells.html?_r=0

132. The term “Kapitalozän” (Capitalocene) was coined by Prof. Elmar Altvater from the Freie Universität (Free University), Berlin during a discussion at the German Council on Foreign Relations.

133. S. C. Finney, “The ‘Anthropocene,’ op. cit., see footnote 109.

134. Andreas Weber, Enlivenment, Towards a fundamental shift in the concepts of nature, culture and politics, Heinrich Böll Foundation, 2013, available here: http://www.boell.de/en/2013/02/01/enlivenment-towards-fundamental-shift-concepts-nature-culture-and-politics

135. Eileen Crist, “On the poverty of our nomenclature,” Environmental Humanities, vol. 3, (2013): 129-147.

136. Kathleen Dean Moore, “Anthropocene is the wrong word,” Earth Island Journal, Spring 2013, http://www.earthisland.org/journal/index.php/eij/article/anthropocene/

137. Paul J. Crutzen, “Geology of mankind,” op. cit., see footnote 91.

138. Christian Schwägerl, “Es macht mir Angst, wie verletzlich die Atmosphäre ist” (It scares me how fragile the atmosphere is), interview with Paul Crutzen, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 20 November 2013.

139.  Paul Crutzen and Christian Schwägerl, “Living in the Anthropocene: Toward a New Global Ethos.” Essay, New Haven, CT: Yale Environment 360, (2010), see http://e360.yale.edu/feature/living_in_the_anthropocene_toward_a_new_global_ethos_/2363/

140.  http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/01/21/inaugural-address-president-barack-obama

141. Curt Stager, Deep Future: The Next 100,000 Years of Life on Earth, New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2011.

142.  David Archner, The Long Thaw: How Humans are Changing the Next 100,000 Years of Earth’s Climate, Princeton University Press, 2010.

 

Five Apocalypse “No”

143. David Hoffman, “I had a funny feeling in my gut”, Washington Post, 10 February 1999, see http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/coldwar/shatter021099b.htm

144.  On this subject, see also a timelapse video of every nuclear explosion since 1945 by Japanese artist Isao Hashimoto http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LLCF7vPanrY

145. Paul Crutzen, Ian E. Galbally, Christoph Brühl, “Atmospheric effects from post-nuclear fires,” Climatic Change, vol 6, issue 4, (December 1984): 323-364.

146. Paul J. Crutzen and John W. Birks, “The atmosphere after a nuclear war,” Ambio, vol. 11, (1982): 114–125.

147.  http://www.thebulletin.org/timeline

148.  Stephen Emmott, Ten Billion, op. cit., see footnote 40.

149.  This is an oft-cited quotation, but in fact it appeared for the first time in 1944 in a circular letter from the Hessian Protestant Church, in an attempt to give church members hope.

150. See, for example, the statement by Tea Party politician Michele Bachmann, October 2013: http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/on-faith/wp/2013/10/08/michele-bachmann-obama-administration-support-of-syrian-rebels-proves-we’re-in-the-end-times/

151. For a more up-to-date interpretation of the Book of Revelation, see Elaine Pagels, Revelations. Visions, Prophecy, and Politics in the Book of Revelation, Viking Penguin, 2012.

152. Christian Schwägerl, Interview with US economist Dennis Meadows: “Copenhagen is about doing as little as possible,” Spiegel Online, December 9, 2009.

153. Donella H. Meadows et al., The Limits to GrowthA report for the Club of Rome’s Project on the Predicament of Mankind. New York: Universe Books, 1972; and see also ‘Humanity Is Still on the Way to Destroying Itself’, interview with Dennis Meadows in Spiegel Onlinehttp://www.spiegel.de/international/world/limits-to-growth-author-dennis-meadows-says-that-crisis-is-approaching-a-871570.html

154.  Nature Editorial Board, ‘The Human Epoch,’ Nature, vol. 473, (19 May 2011): 254.

155. German Advisory Council on Global Change, Flagship Report: “World in Transition. A Social Contract for Sustainability,” Berlin, 2011.

156. Speech during the opening of the “Anthropocene Project” at the Haus der Kulturen der Welt in Berlin, January 2013.

157. Jo Confino, Sustainability movement will fail unless it creates a compelling future vision, The Guardian, November 23, 2013, http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/sustainability-movement-fail-future

158.  http://www.boyanslat.com/bio/index.html

159.  http://jackandraka.net/

160.  http://www.malalafund.org/

161.  Anjali Appadurai, “Get it done”, www.vimeo.com/33410262

162. Christian Luhmann, “Temporal Decision-Making: Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience,” Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, vol 3, no. 39, (23 October 2009).

163. A terrific read: David J. Linden, The Compass of Pleasure: How Our Brains Make Fatty Foods, Orgasm, Exercise, Marijuana, Generosity, Vodka, Learning and Gambling Feel So Good, Viking, 2011.

164. Christian Gollier and Martin Weitzman, “How Should the Distant Future be Discounted When Discount Rates are Uncertain?” Cambridge: Harvard University, informal discussion paper, 7 November 2009 and Christian Gollier et al., “Declining discount rates: economic justifications and implications for long-run policy, Working Papers, LERNA, University of Toulouse, http://ideas.repec.org/s/ler/wpaper.html.

165.  Frank Schirrmacher, Ego—Das Spiel des Lebens, Blessing, 2013.

166.  You’ll find numerous appalling videos of “Black Friday riots” online.

167.  See also William McDonough and Michael Braungart, The Upcycle: Beyond Sustainability—Designing for Abundance, North Point Press, 2013.

168.  Helen Wang, The Chinese Dream: The Rise of the World’s Largest Middle Class and What It Means to You, Bestseller Press, 2012.

169. In China the definition of the Chinese Dream is disputed. See for example the articles and speeches at http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/Chinese-dream.html and Peggy Liu, “China dream: a lifestyle movement with sustainability at its heart,” The Guardian, June 13, 2012, http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/china-dream-sustainable-living-behaviour-change

170. Jim Oeppen and James W. Vaupel, “Broken Limits of Life Expectancy,” Science, vol. 296, (2002): 1029-1031, and James W. Vaupel, “Biodemography of human ageing,” Nature, vol. 464, (25 March 2010): 503.

171. Grace Wyler, “US  Women Are Dying Younger Than Their Mothers, and  No One Knows Why,” The Atlantic, (October 7, 2013),  http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/10/us-women-are-dying-younger-than-their-mothers-and-no-one-knows-why/280259/

172. http://www.who.int/gho/mortality_burden_disease/life_tables/situation_trends_text/en/index.html

173.  http://longnow.org/clock/

174.  Christian Schwägerl, “A Long Scar from the Iron Curtain, a Green Belt Rises in Germany,” Yale Environment 360, (April 4, 2011). http://e360.yale.edu/feature/along_scar_from_iron_curtain_a_green_belt_rises_in_germany/2390/, see also http://www.europeangreenbelt.org/

 

Six The Evergreen Revolution

175.  L.M. Curran et al., “Lowland forest loss in protected areas of Indonesian Borneo,” Science, vol. 303, no. 5660, (2004): 1000-1003.

176. James Morgan, “Forest change mapped by Google Earth,” BBC News, November 14, 2013, the interactive tool http://earthenginepartners.appspot.com/science-2013-global-forest

177. Guido van der Werf et al., “CO2 emissions from forest loss,” Nature Geoscience, vol. 2, no. 11, (November 2009): 733-808.

178.  United States Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service, “Oilseeds: World Markets and Trade,” September 11, 2014, http://www.fas.usda.gov/

179.  Douglas Sheil et al, “The impacts and opportunities of oil palm in Southeast Asia, Bogor,” CIFOR, 2009.

1801.  D.P. Edwards and W. F. Laurance, “Carbon emissions: Loophole in forest plan for Indonesia,” Nature, vol. 477, no. 33, (2011).

181.  Jan Willem van Gelder et al., “Soy consumption for feed and fuel in the European Union,” Profundo Economic Research, (2008).

182.  M.C. Hansen et al., “High-Resolution Global Maps of 21st-Century Forest Cover Change,” Science, vol. 342, no. 6160, (15 November 2013): 850-853.

183.  Andreas Rinke and Christian Schwägerl, 11 Drohende Kriege—Künftige Konflikte um Technologien, Rohstoffe, Territorien und Nahrung, Bertelsmann, 2012.

184. FAO, IFAD and WFP, “The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2013: The multiple dimensions of food security,” Rome, FAO, 2013.

185.  FAO, “Food Wastage Footprint: Impacts on Natural Resources,” Rome, 2013.

186.  FAO, “World Agriculture: Towards 2015/2030,” Rome, 2002.

187.  FAO and OECD, “Agricultural Outlook 2009–2018,” Rome, 2009.

188.  FAO, “Current world fertilizer trends and outlook to 2011/12,” Rome 2008.

189.  Peter M. Vitousek, “Human Domination of Earth’s Ecosystems,” Science, vol. 277, no. 5325, (25 July 1997): 494-499.

190.  FAO Stat, 2010.

191.  UNCTAD, “Wake up before it is too late: Make agriculture truly sustainable now for food security in a changing climate,” 2013.

192. P.F. Donald et al., “Agricultural intensification and the collapse of Europe’s farmland bird populations,” Proceedings of the Royal Society London, B 7, vol. 268, no. 1462, (January 2001): 25-29.

193.  Devra I. Jarvis et al., Managing Biodiversity in Agricultural Ecosystems, New York: Columbia University Press, 2010.

194. Thomas Frieden, “Antibiotic Resistance and the Threat to Public Health,” Director Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Testimony Committee on Energy and Commerce: http://www.cdc.gov/washington/testimony/2010/t20100428.htm 28. April 2010.

195. Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance, U.S. Government Agencies: A public health action plan to combat antimicrobial resistance, Washington, DC, 2009.

196.  Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals, Penguin, 2006.

197.  David R. Montgomery, Dirt, op cit., see footnote 32.

198.  See the NOAA press release: http://coastalscience.noaa.gov/news/coastal-pollution/2013-gulf-of-mexico-dead-zone-size-above-average-but-not-largest/

199.  Karl von Koerber et al., Globale Ernährungsgewohnheiten und -trends, Munich/Berlin 2008: http://www.wbgu.de/fileadmin/templates/dateien/veroeffentlichungen/hauptgutachten/jg2008/wbgu_jg2008_ex10.pdf

200.  Robert J. Diaz et al., “Spreading Dead Zones and Consequences for Marine Ecosystems,” Science, vol. 321, (15. August 2008): 926-929.

201.  World Resources Institute: http://www.wri.org/our-work/project/eutrophication-and-hypoxia

202.  See Joachim von Braun and Ruth Meinzen-Dick, “Land Grabbing by Foreign Investors in Developing Countries: Risks and Opportunities,” IFPRI Policy Brief 13, Washington, D. C., April 2009; Lorenzo Cotula, Sonja Vermeulen, Rebeca Leonard, James Keeley, “Land Grab or Development Opportunity? Agricultural Investment and International Land Deals in Africa,” IIED/FAO/IFAD, London/Rome, 2009; Fred Pearce, The Land Grabbers: The New Fight Over Who Owns the Earth, Beacon Press, 2012 and “Grain, The land grab for food and financial security,” Barcelona: GRAIN Briefing, October 2008.

203.  Joachim Radkau, Nature and Power: A Global History of the Environment, Cambridge University Press, 2008; Hansjörg Küster, Geschichte der Landschaft in Mitteleuropa, C.H. Beck, 1999.

204.  Taylor H. Ricketts et al., “Economic value of tropical forest to coffee production,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 101, no. 34, (2004): 12579-12582.

205.  Alain Atangana et al., Tropical Agroforestry, Springer, 2013.

206.  Gérard Buttoud, Advancing Agroforestry on the Policy Agenda—A guide for decision-makers, Rome: FAO, 2013, http://www.fao.org/docrep/017/i3182e/i3182e00.pdf

207.  Ron Nixon, “Billionaires received U.S: farm subsidies, study finds,” New York Times, November 7, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/07/us/billionaires-received-us-farm-subsidies-report-finds.html  and  George  Eaton, “Revealed: how we pay our richest landowners millions in subsidies,” New Statesman, September 19, 2012, http://www.newstatesman.com/blogs/politics/2012/09/revealed-how-we-pay-our-richest-landowners-millions-subsidies

208.  Henning Steinfeld et al., “Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options,” Rome: FAO, 2006.

209. Swedish National Food Administration, “The National Food Administration’s environmentally effective food choices,” Stockholm: proposal to the EU Commission, 15 May 2009.

210.  For one particular and very local example, see Christian Schwägerl, “Reviving Europe’s Biodiversity By Importing Exotic Animals,” Yale Environment 360, (January 10, 2013). http://e360.yale.edu/feature/reviving_europes_biodiversity_by_importing_exotic_animals/2608/

211.  D.M. Broom et al., “Sustainable, efficient livestock production with high biodiversity and good welfare for animals,” Proceedings of the Royal Society, vol. 280, no. 1771, (November 22, 2013).

212.  FAO, “Greenhouse Gas emissions from the dairy sector,” Rome, 2010.

213.  On this subject, see also Anthony McMichael, “Food, livestock production, energy, climate change, and health,” The Lancet, vol. 370 (6 October 2007): 1253-1263.

214.  UNEP, Growing greenhouse gas emissions due to meat production, October 2012, http://www.unep.org/pdf/UNEP-GEAS_OCT_2012.pdf

215.  Alok Jha, “Synthetic meat: how the world’s costliest burger made it on to the plate,” The Guardian, August 5, 2013, http://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/aug/05/synthetic-meat-burger-stem-cells

216.  The animal rights organization PETA has even offered a 1-million-dollar prize for the first synthetic chicken meat: see http://www.peta.org/features/vitro-meat-contest/

217.  Ivette Perfecto and John Vandermeer, “The agroecological matrix as alternative to the land-sparing/agriculture intensification model,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 107, no. 13, (2010): 5786-5791.

218.  UNCTAD, “Wake up before it is too late: Make agriculture truly sustainable now for food security in a changing climate,” 2013.

219. Winnie Gerbens-Leenes, “Consumption patterns and their effects on land required for food,” Ecological Economics, vol. 42, (2002): 185-199, and Winnie Gerbens-Leenes et al., “A method to determine land requirements relating to food consumption patterns,” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, vol. 90, no. 1, (2002): 47-58.

220. Uma Lele et al., “Transforming Agricultural Research for Development,” The Global Forum for Agricultural Research (GFAR), 2010.

221.  John Beddington et al., “Achieving food security in the face of climate change: Final report from the Commission on Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change,” CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), Copenhagen, Denmark, 2012. Available online at: http://ccafs.cgiar.org/commission

222.  The current status of research is very well summarized in: Diana H. Wall et al., Soil Ecology and Ecosystem Services, Oxford University Press, 2013.

223.  FAO, “World Agriculture: Towards 2015/2030,” op. cit. See footnote 186.

224.  For concrete examples in Berlin, see Christian Schwägerl, “In Berlin, Bringing Bees Back to the Heart of the City,” Yale Environment 360, September 6, 2011: http://e360.yale.edu/feature/urban_beekeeping_berlin_brings_bees_back_to_the_city/2439/ and http://www.ecf-center.de/en/ecf-containerfarm/

225.  See http://www.beaconfoodforest.org/; http://inhabitat.com/detroits-urban-agriculture-movement-could-help-green-the-city/http://inhabitat.com/hundreds-of-vacant-detroit-lots-to-become-worlds-largest-urban-farm

226.  In 2010 before the American troops began to withdraw from Iraq, there were 112,000 soldiers still stationed there—but only thirty-eight American agricultural advisors.

 

Seven The Invironment

227.  See World Database on Protected Areas, http://www.protectedplanet.net/

228.  Robert Boyle, A Free Enquiry into the Vulgarly Received Notion of Nature, 1686, a Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy reprint. Edward B. Davis and Michael Hunter (eds), Cambridge University Press, 1996.

229.  Frank Uekötter, The Green and the Brown: A History of Conservation in Nazi Germany, Cambridge University Press, 2006.

230.  Günther Anders, Die Antiquiertheit des Menschen, Munich: C.H. Beck, 1987.

231.  Philippe Descola, Beyond Nature and Culture, University of Chicago Press, 2013.

232.  Libby Robin et al., The Future of Nature, Yale University Press, 2013.

233.  Emma Marris, Rambunctious Garden: Saving Nature in a Post-Wild World, Bloomsbury, USA, 2011.

234.  Simon Romero, “Once Hidden by Forest, Carvings in Land Attest to Amazon’s Lost World,” New York Times, January 14, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/15/world/americas/land-carvings-attest-to-amazons-lost-world.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

235.  Koert van Mensvoort and Hendrik-Jan Grievink, Next Nature: Nature Changes Along With Us, Actar, New York 2011.

236. Daniel Botkin, Discordant Harmonies: A New Ecology for the Twenty-First Century, Oxford University Press, 1990.

237.  Will Steffen, Paul J. Crutzen and John R. McNeill, “The Anthropocene: Are Humans Now Overwhelming the Great Forces of Nature?”, Ambio, vol. 36, no. 8, (December 2007): 614-621.

238.  Lecture by Erle Ellis for the opening of the Anthropocene project at the Haus der Kulturen der Welt in January, 2013 and personal correspondence. See also videos of this and related talks on the HKW Anthropocene channel on Youtube.com.

239.  Emma Fitzsimmons, “Snowy Owls to Be Trapped Instead of Shot at New York Area Airports,” New York Times, December 10, 2013: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/10/nyregion/snowy-owls-to-be-trapped-instead-of-shot-at-new-york-area-airports.html

240.  One good example of this is mangroves. See: Norm Duke et al., “A world without mangroves?” Science, vol. 317, (6 July 2007): 41.

241.  See University of Toronto, The Wenceslaus Hollar Digital Collection, http://bit.ly/1AQUfUU

242.  Philippe Descola, The Ecology of Others, Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press, 2013.

243.  This is captured in an astonishing BBC video with David Attenborough: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VjE0Kdfos4Y.

244.  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/11/05/elk-on-trampoline_n_4215094.html?ncid=edlinkusaolp00000009http://www.deathandtaxesmag.com/211135/brilliant-crow-makes-a-sled-out-of-mayonnaise-lid-has-more-fun-than-youve-had-all-winter/http://grist.org/list/an-eagle-stole-a-video-camera-and-made-this-cinematic-masterpiece/?utm_campaign=socialflow&utm_source=facebook&utm_medium=update.

245.  Paul Shepard, The Tender Carnivore and the Sacred Game, New York: Scribners 1973. See also Defending the EarthA Dialogue Between Murray Bookchin and Dave Foreman,  Montreal: Black Rose Books, 1991; and Bill Devall, Deep Ecology. Salt Lake City, UT: Gibbs Smith, 1985.

246.  UN Habitat, State of the World’s Cities 2010/2011, Nairobi, 2010.

247.  Karen C. Seto et al., “Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 . . .,” op. cit., see footnote 38.

248.  World Bank, World Development Indicators, 2005; data from 2002. J. Kubec and J. Podzimek, Wasserwegs, Hanau: Verlag Werner Dausien 1996; International Union of Railways, annual report 2008.

249.  http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2013/12/map-all-the-countries-that-contribute-to-a-single-jar-of-nutella/282252/

250.  William Gibson, Neuromancer, Ace, 1986.

251.  The ISS video shot at night is always a pleasure to watch: between 3:50 to 4:10 minutes, the BAMA can be seen.

252.  The European Cement Association: http://www.cembureau.eu/about-cement/key-facts-figures. Concrete consists of one part cement, 0.6 parts water and 6.7 parts stone.

253.  My thanks to artists Myriel Milicevic and Alex Toland for the inspiration.

254.  For some wonderful examples, see also Mohsen Mostafavi and Gareth Doherty, Ecological Urbanism, Lars Müller, 2010.

255.  Richard Louv, The Nature Principle: Human Restoration and the End of Nature-Deficit Disorder, Algonquin Books, 2011.

256.  Marina Alberti, “Cities as Hybrid Ecosystems,” http://www.thenatureofcities.com/2013/09/27/building-cities-that-think-like-planets/ based on Paul Hirsch and Bryan Norton, “Thinking like a Planet,” in: Allen Thompson and Jeremy Bendik-Keymer (eds.): Ethical Adaptation to Climate Change: Human Virtues of the Future, MIT Press, 2012.

257.  Marina Alberti, Advances in Urban Ecology—Integrating Human and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems, Springer, 2008.

258.  Emma Marris, Rambunctious Garden, op cit., see footnote 233.

259.  http://www.desertusa.com/salton/oct_salton.html

260.  http://sustainablecitiescollective.com/big-city/184236/strange-case-bucharest-s-lake-v-c-re-ti A flight over the area: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NRz5PvPXBKs

261.  For example, see: http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2011/04/artificial-reefs-around-the-world/100042/ and http://myfwc.com/conservation/saltwater/artificial-reefs/

262. “Tires meant to foster sea life choke it instead,” New York Times, February 18, 2007.

263.  William Cheung et al., “Large-scale redistribution of maximum fisheries catch potential in the global ocean under climate change,” Global Change Biology, vol. 16, issue 1, (January 2010): 24–35; Stephen D. Simpson et al., “Continental Shelf-Wide Response of a Fish Assemblage to Rapid Warming of the Sea,” Current Biology, vol. 21, issue 18, (September 15, 2011): 1565–1570; Keith Brander, “Impacts of climate change on fisheries,” Journal of Marine Systems, vol. 79, (2010): 389–402.

264.  Camille Parmesan and Gary Yohe, “A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems,” Nature, vol. 421, (January 2, 2003): 37–42 and Gian-Reto Walther, “Community and ecosystem responses to recent climate change,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, vol. 365, no. 1549, (July 12, 2010): 2019–2024.

265.  This story is thanks to Ursula Heise, author of Sense of Place and Sense of Planet, Oxford University Press, 2008.

266.  John L. Curnutt, “A Guide to the Homogenocene,” Ecology, vol. 81, no.6, (June 2000): 1756-1757.

267.  Lee Boyd, Przewalski’s Horse: The History and Biology, State University of New York Press, 1994.

268.  See Jelte van Andel and James Aronson, Restoration Ecology: The New Frontier, John Wiley & Sons, 2012 and the website of the Society for Ecological Restoration http://www.ser.org/

269.  Etienne Benson, Wired Wilderness: Technologies of Tracking and the Making of Modern Wildlife, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010.

270.  http://conservationdrones.org/

271.   http://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2013/11/25/hi-def-space-selfies-coming-to-your-web-browser-soon/

272.  Aichi Targets the Convention on Biological Diversity: http://www.cbd.int/sp/targets/

 

Eight Technature

273.  Jan Zalasiewicz, Mark Williams, Colin N. Waters, Anthony D. Barnosky and Peter Haff, “The technofossil record of humans,” The Anthropocene Review, January 7, 2014, http://anr.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/01/06/2053019613514953.full.pdf

274.  Igal Zeifman, Bot traffic is up to 68.5% of all website traffic, http://www.incapsula.com/

275. Koert van Meensvort and Hendrik-Jan Grievink, Next Nature, New York: Actar, 2012.

276.  Lawrence Rainey et al., Futurism: An Anthology, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2009.

277.  Numbers from the permanent exhibition of the Jena Phyletic Museum.

278. Daniel Yergin, The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money and Power, New York: Free Press, 2008.

279.  Akos Paulinyi and Ulrich Troitzsch, Mechanisierung und Maschinisierung, Propyläen Technik Geschichte 1600 bis 1840, Berlin: Propyläen, 1997.

280.  Siegfried Zimmermann, “Ludwig Meyn und die Entwicklung der Erdölindustrie bei Heide in Holstein,” Dissertation, Hamburg, 1966.

281.  Daniel Yergin, The Prize, op cit., see footnote 278.

282.  Thomas Wiedmann et al., “The material footprint of nations,” published online before print. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1220362110, PNAS September 3, 2013.

283.  Peter K. Haff, “Technology as a geological phenomenon: implications for human well-being,” in: C.N. Waters et al. (eds.), “A stratigraphic basis for the Anthropocene,” Geological Society, London, Special Publications no. 395, first published 25 October, 2013; doi:10.1144/SP395.1.

284.  Christian Schwägerl, Die analoge Revolution, Munich: Riemann-Verlag, 2014.

285.  Peter K. Haff, “Technology as a geological phenomenon” op. cit., see footnote 283.

286.  Peter K. Haff, “Technology as a geological phenomenon” op. cit., see footnote 283.

287.  Sales figures source: http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2335616

288.  http://www.unep.org/pdf/pressreleases/E-waste_publication_screen_finalversion-sml.pdf, p.8.

289.  International Energy Agency, Paris; http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/

290.  See World Map project material on http://www.step-initiative.org/

291.  Mathias Schlüp et al., Recycling—From E-Waste to Resources, Berlin: UNEP 2009.

292.  Goonan, T.G., 2011, “Rare earth elements—End use and recyclability,” U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011–5094, available only at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2011/5094/ and EPA, “Rare Earth Elements: A Review of Production, Processing, Recycling, and Associated Environmental Issues,” EPA/600/R-12/572, December 2012.

293.  Daniel Hoornweg et al., “Environment: Waste production must peak this century,” Nature, 30 October 2013.

294.  Susan Freinkel, Plastic: A Toxic Love Story, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2011.

295.  Erik R. Zettler et al., “Life in the ‘Plastisphere’”: Microbial Communities on Plastic Marine Debris,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 47, no. 13 (2013): 7137–7146.

296.  Patricia Corcoran et al., An anthropogenic marker horizon in the future rock record, GSA Today, vol. 24, no. 6, (2014).

297.  C. Rochman et al., “Classify plastic waste as hazardous,” Nature, vol. 494, (Feb-ruary 14, 2013): 169–171.

298.  David Barnes et al., “Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, vol. 364, no. 1526 (27 July 2009): 1985–1998.

299.  Richard Thompson et al., “Our plastic age,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, vol. 364, no. 1526 (27 July 2009): 1973–1976 as well as “Plastics—the Facts 2010, An analysis of European plastics production, demand and recovery for 2009,” Brussels: Association of Plastic Manufacturers in Europe, 2010.

300.  EPA, see http://www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/materials/plastics.htm

301.  Richard Thompson et al., “Lost at Sea: Where is All the Plastic?” Science, vol. 304, no. 5672, (7 May 2004): 838.

302.  Tracy L. McMullen, Karla J. McDermid, “Quantitative analysis of small-plastic debris on beaches in the Hawaiian archipelago,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 48, issues 7–8, (April 2004): 790-794.

303.  Sarah Wachter, “Recycling Discarded Flip-Flops,” New York Times, (8 Dec 2009).

304.  http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/mar/08/spain-sperm-whale-death-swallowed-plastic

305.  Kenneth Weiss, “Plague of plastic chokes the seas,” Los Angeles Times, (2 August 2006).

306.   Chris Jordan, Midway Project: see http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PLkTTJW4xZs.

307.  See website of the American Chemical Society at: http://www.cas.org/newsevents/releases/50millionth090809.html

308.  Kevin Chambliss et al., “Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in fish: Results of a national pilot study in the United States,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 28, no. 12, (January 2010): 2587–2597.

309.  See Krista McCoy et al., “Agriculture Alters Gonadal Form and Function in the Toad Bufo marinus,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 116, no. 11, (November 2008): 1526–1532.

310.  Matthew Milnes et al., “Contaminant-induced feminization and demasculinization of nonmammalian vertebrate males in aquatic environments,” Environmental Research, vol. 100, no. 1, (January 2006): 3–17.

311.  Jonathan Ansfield and Keith Bradsher, “China Report Shows More Pollution in Waterways,” New York Times, (February 9, 2010).

312.  Jim Yardley, “Bangladesh Pollution, Told in Colors and Smells,” New York Times, (July 14, 2013): http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/15/world/asia/bangladesh-pollution-told-in-colors-and-smells.html

313.  Environmental Working Group, “Pollution in People: Cord Blood Contaminants in Minority Newborns,” Washington, DC, 2009.

314.  U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals,” 2009, and http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/pdf/NER_Chemical_List.pdf

315.  Joanna Foster, “China’s First Smog Clinic Opens its Doors,” Think Progress, (December 18, 2013): http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2013/12/18/3083901/chinas-smog-clinic/

316.  Vincent Rossi et al., “Multi-decadal projections of surface and interior pathways of the Fukushima Cesium-137 radioactive plume,” Deep Sea Research I, vol. 80, (June 2013): 37–46, http://web.maths.unsw.edu.au/~matthew/Rossi_et_al_DSR_2013.pdf

317.  Peter K. Haff, “Technology as a geological phenomenon: implications for human well-being,” op. cit., see footnote 283.

318.  Michael Braungart and William McDonough, Cradle to Cradle, Vintage, 2009; and Michael Braungart and William McDonough, The Upcycle: Beyond Sustainability, Designing for Abundance, North Point Press, 2013.

319.  Gaby Wood, Edison’s Eve, New York: Anchor Books, 2002.

320.  Allen McDuffee, “Army Scores a Super-Stealthy Drone That Looks Like a Bird,” Wired Online, (November 27, 2013): http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2013/11/army-maveric-microdrone/

321.  Illah Nourbakhsh, “Google’s Robot Army,” New Yorker, (December 18, 2013): http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/elements/2013/12/when-robots-become-smog.html

322.  Spencer Ackerman, “DARPA wants to create dissolvable spy hardware,” Wired Online, (January 29, 2013).

323.  Brian Arthur, The Nature of Technology: What It Is and How It Evolves, New York: Free Press, 2009.

324.  Andrew Freedman, “IPCC Report Contains ‘Grave’ Carbon Budget Message,” Climate Central, (October 4, 2013): http://www.climatecentral.org/news/ipcc-climate-change-report-contains-grave-carbon-budget-message-16569

325.  Gemima Harvey, “The Potential of Urban Mining,” The Diplomat, (November 19, 2013): http://thediplomat.com/2013/11/the-potential-of-urban-mining/

326.  Christopher J. Bettinger, “Biologically derived melanin electrodes in aqueous sodium-ion energy storage devices,” PNAS, vol. 110, no. 52 (December 24, 2013): 20912–20917.

327.  Philip Ball, “Silk lasers: ‘Edible’ electronics move closer,” BBC Future, (September 14, 2012): http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20120907-lasers-made-from-silk

328.  Javier G. Fernandez and Donald E. Ingber, “Unexpected Strength and Toughness in Chitosan-Fibroin Laminates Inspired by Insect Cuticle,” Advanced Materials, vol. 24, issue 4, (January 2012): 480–484.

329.  Peter Fratzl et al., “Micromechanical properties of biological silica in skeletons of deep-sea sponges,” Journal of Material Research, vol. 21, no. 8 (August 2006).

330.  Nick Goldman et al., “Towards practical, high-capacity, low-maintenance information storage in synthesized DNA,” Nature, vol. 494, (February 7, 2013): 77–80.

331. Atsushi Tero et al., “Rules for biologically inspired adaptive network design,” Science, vol. 327, no. 5964, (22 January 2010): 439–442.

332.  Chandran Nair, “Five dangers the internet poses to a sustainable world,” Global Institute for Tomorrow, (August 92013)http://www.global-inst.com/ideas-for-tomorrow/2013/five-dangers-the-internet-poses-to-a-sustainable-world.html

333. The phrase “Digitale Zwilling” (“virtual twin”) was coined by the German President Joachim Gauck during the National Security Agency’s electronic eavesdropping scandal, October 2013: http://www.bundespraesident.de/SharedDocs/Reden/EN/JoachimGauck/Reden/2013/131003-Day-of-German-Unity.html

334.  Peter Tallack, The Science Book, London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 2006.

335.  Arthur D. Chapman, “Numbers of living species in Australia and the world,” Canberra: Australian Biodiversity Information Service, 2009) and Camilo Mora et al., “How Many Species Are There on Earth and in the Ocean?” PLoS Biology, vol. 9, no. 8, (August 2011).

336.  Charles Godfray and Sandra Knapp, “Taxonomy for the 21st century,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, vol. 359, no. 1444 (2004): 559–569.

337.  Edward O. Wilson, “Taxonomy as a fundamental discipline,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B, vol. 359, no. 1444 (2004): 739.

338.  Edward O. Wilson et al., “The barometer of life,” Science, vol. 328, no. 5975, (9 April 2010): 177.

339.  International Energy Agency, “World Energy Outlook 2012,” Paris, 2012.

340.  See http://www.feynman.caltech.edu/plenty.html

341.  Engineering and Science, vol. LXXIII, S. 1, Winter 2010.

342.  This shows a sad anthropogenic landscape: http://www.flickr.com/photos/amy-myou/9431314171/

343.  John Markoff, “Google Adds to Its Menagerie of Robots,” New York Times, (December 14, 2013): http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/14/technology/google-adds-to-its-menagerie-of-robots.html

344.  The US Department of Defense is already actively developing hybrids made of insects and robots: https://www.fbo.gov/index?s=opportunity&mode=form&id= ec6d6847537a9220810f4282eedda0d2&tab=core&_cview=1. This is also interesting: Robo-Roach, https://backyardbrains.com/products/roboroach

345.  Allen McDuffee, “Army Scores a Super-Stealthy Drone That Looks Like a Bird,” op. cit., see Footnote 320.

 

Nine Directing Evolution 

346.  Joachim Müller-Jung and Christian Schwägerl, “Darwins Apostel,” Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, (12 March, 2002)

347.  Brandlhuber: “Kim Jong Il, Kimilsungia, Pyongyangstudies IV,” AdbK Nürnberg (2008), http://www.a42.org/fileadmin/_img/disko/disko_11.pdf

348.  Matt Kaplan, “City birds use cigarette butts to smoke out parasites,” Nature, (December 5, 2012).

349.  Yosuke Kashiwakura, Entry for National Geographic Photography Contest 2013: http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photo-contest/2013/entries/gallery/nature-winners/#/3

350.  Charles Brown and Mary Bomberger Brown, “Where has all the roadkill gone?” Current Biology, (March 18, 2013): http://download.cell.com/current-biology/pdf/PIIS09609 82213001942.pdf?intermediate=true and http://www.humanesociety.org/issues/pet_overpopulation/facts/pet_ownership_statistics.html

351.  Félix M. Medina, “A global review of the impacts of invasive cats on island endangered vertebrates,” Global Change Biology, vol. 17, issue 11, (November 2011): 3503–3510.

352.  Scott R. Loss et al., “The impact of free-ranging domestic cats on wildlife of the United States,” Nature Communications, vol. 4, no. 1396 (29 January 2013).

353.  Freeman Dyson, “Our Biotech Future, “New York Review of Books, (July 19, 2007): http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2007/jul/19/our-biotech-future/

354.  Andrew Curry, “The milk revolution,” Nature, vol. 500, (August 1, 2013): 20–22.

355.  James Robl, “Cloned transchromosomic calves producing human immuno-globulin,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 20, (August 12, 2002): 889–894 and Sanford Research: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12172556

356.  B. Yang et al., “Characterization of Bioactive Recombinant Human Lysozyme Expressed in Milk of Cloned Transgenic Cattle,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no.3, (2011): http://phys.org/news/2011-04-genetically-cows-human-breast.html

357.  Ariel Schwartz, “Here’s What Happens When You Put A Human Immune System In A Cow,” Co.Exist, (September 25, 2013): http://www.fastcoexist.com/3017884
/heres-what-happens-when-you-put-a-human-immune-system-in-a-cow

358.  Craig Venter et al., “Creation of a Bacterial Cell Controlled by a Chemically Synthesized Genome,” Science, vol. 329, no. 5987 (July 2, 2010): 52–56.

359.  Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Discipline, Penguin, 2010.

360.  Craig Venter et al., “Whole-Genome Random Sequencing and Assembly of Haemophilus influenzae Rd,” Science, vol. 269, no. 5223 (28 July, 1995): 496–512.

361.  Craig Venter et al., “Generating a synthetic genome by whole genome assembly: ØX174 bacteriophage from synthetic oligonucleotide,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 100, no. 26, (23 December, 2003): 15 440–15 445.

362.  Samuel Levy et al., “The Diploid Genome Sequence of an Individual Human,” PLoS Biology, vol. 5, no. 10, (4 September, 2007).

363.  Craig Venter et al., “Generating a synthetic genome,” op cit., see footnote 361.

364.  Daniel Gibson et al., “Complete chemical synthesis, assembly, and cloning of a Mycoplasma genitalium genome,” Science, vol. 319, no. 5867, (29 February 2008): 1215–1220 and Daniel Gibson et al., “One-step assembly in yeast of 25 overlapping DNA fragments to form a complete synthetic Mycoplasma genitalium genome,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 105, no. 51, (23 December, 2008): 20404–20409.

365.  http://www.ted.com/talks/craig_venter_unveils_synthetic_life.html

366.  Wetterstrand KA., “DNA Sequencing Costs: Data from the NHGRI Genome Sequencing Program (GSP),” available at: www.genome.gov/sequencingcosts. Accessed December 19, 2013.

367.  Karin Hübner, Hans Schöler et al., “Derivation of oocytes from mouse embryonic stem cells,” Science, vol. 300, no. 5623 (23 May 2003): 1251–1256.

368.  Joachim Müller-Jung and Christian Schwägerl, “Darwins Apostel,” op. cit., see Footnote 346.

369.  Karl Deisseroth et al., “Multimodal fast optical interrogation of neural circuitry,” Nature, vol. 446, (5 April, 2007): 633–639.

370.  Georg Nagel et al., “Fast manipulation of cellular cAMP level by light in vivo,” Nature Methods, vol. 4, no. 1, (January 2007): 39–42.

371.  Michael D. Lieberman, “What makes big ideas sticky?” from: What’s next? Dispatches on the Future of Science, (New York, Vintage Books, 2009) and M.D. Lieberman, “Social Cognitive Neuroscience: A Review of Core Processes,” Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 58 (2007): 259–289.

372.  Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene,  Oxford University Press, 1976.

373.  Michael Costanzo et al., “The Genetic Landscape of a Cell,” Science, vol. 327, no. 3964 (22 January 2010): 425–431.

374.  Rudolf Jaenisch and Adrian Bird, “Epigenetic regulation of gene expression: how the genome integrates intrinsic and environmental signals,” Nature Genetics, vol. 33, (2003): 245–254.

375.  See Eva Jablonka and Marion Lamb, Evolution in Four Dimensions: Genetic, Epigenetic, Behavioral, and Symbolic Variation in the History of Life, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005.

376.  For a summary in layman’s terms, see also Yochai Benkler, The Penguin and the Leviathan: How Cooperation Triumphs Over Self-Interest, New York: Random House, 2011.

377.  See also Ottmar Ette, Weltbewußtsein. Alexander von Humboldt und das unvollendete Projekt einer anderen Moderne, Weilerswist, Weilerswist-Metternich: Velbrück Wissenschaft, 2002.

378.  Alexander von Humboldt, Views of Nature: Or Contemplations on the Sublime Phenomena of Creation, Cambridge University Press, 2011.

379.  Alexander von Humboldt, Cosmos: A Sketch of the Physical Description of the Universe, Kindle Edition.

380-.  Laura Dassow Walls, The Passage to Cosmos: Alexander von Humboldt and the Shaping of America, University of Chicago Press, 2009.

381.  The term “buyosphere” was coined by Daniel Goleman in Ecological Intelligence, New York: Broadway Books, 2009.

 

Ten Earth Economy

382.  For further information on the Congo Basin and protected areas there, see: http://www.dzanga-sangha.org/ and http://www.theguardian.com/

383.  For a deeper insight into the mechanisms of the financial crisis see Michael Lewis, The Big Short: Inside the Doomsday Machine, New York: Norton, 2010.

384.  Robert M. May et al., “Ecology for bankers,” Nature, vol. 451, (February 21, 2008): 893–895.

385.  On the economic aspects of marine protection, see Boris Worm, “Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services,” Science, vol. 314, no. 5800, (November 3, 2006): 787–790; Steven Murawski et al., “Biodiversity Loss in the Ocean: How Bad Is It?,” Science, vol. 316, no. 5829, (June 1, 2007):1281; Walter Garstang, “The Impoverishment of the Sea. A Critical Summary of the Experimental and Statistical Evidence bearing upon the Alleged Depletion of the Trawling Grounds,” Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, vol. 6, (July 1900): 1–69, 1900; Daniel Pauly et al., “Fuel price increase, subsidies, overcapacity, and resource sustainability,” ICES Journal of Marine Science, vol. 65, no. 6, (April 2008): 832–840 and Jeremy Jackson, “Ecological extinction and evolution in the brave new ocean,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 105, suppl. 1, (August 12, 2008):11458–11465.

386.  Most of the main agents of the financial crisis, such as the investment bank Goldman Sachs, are bringing in record profits once again and experts are already giving warnings of a new credit bubble.

387.  UNDP, “The Energy Access Situation in Developing Countries: A Review Focusing on the Least Developed Countries and Sub-Saharan Africa,” (Paris, 2009) and UN News Center, “Deputy UN chief calls for urgent action to tackle global sanitation crisis,” (March 21, 2013): http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=44452&Cr=sanitation&Cr1=#
.UU_G_BySV3-

388.  Luisa Kroll and Kerry A. Dolan, “The Forbes 400: The Richest People in America,” (September 16, 2013): http://www.forbes.com/forbes-400/, retrieved December 21, 2013.

389.  Philip Bethge, Rafaela von Bredow and Christian Schwägerl, “The Price of Survival: What would it cost to save Nature?,” Spiegel Online, (May 23, 2008): http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/the-price-of-survival-what-would-it-cost-to-save-nature-a-554982.html

390.  Ralf Antes et al., Emissions Trading: Institutional Design, Decision Making and Corporate Strategies, Berlin: Springer, 2011.

391.  Chinese Academy of Sciences, Carbon Equity: Perspectives from the Chinese Academic Community, Beijing, 2009.

392.  Christina von Braun, Der Preis des Geldes. Eine Kulturgeschichte. Berlin: Aufbau- Verlag, 2012.

393.  Alexander von Humboldt, Aus meinem Leben, Munich: C.H. Beck, 1989.

394.  Pavan Sukhdev, Put a value on nature, TED talk, posted December 2011, http://www.ted.com/talks/pavan_sukhdev_what_s_the_price_of_nature.html

395.  Tony Juniper, What Has Nature Ever Done For Us? Santa Fe, NM: Synergetic Press, 2014.

396.  Christian Gollier et al., “Declining discount rates: economic justifications and implications for long-run policy”, Working Papers, University of Toulouse, France. http://idei.fr/doc/wp/2008/declining_discount.pdf

397.  Christian Gollier and Martin Weitzman, “How Should the Distant Future be Discounted When Discount Rates are Uncertain?”, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, November 7, 2009, informal discussion paper, http://idei.fr/doc/by/gollier/discounting_long_term.pdf

398.  Pavan Sukhdev, Corporation 2020, Washington, DC: Island Press, 2012.

399.  Pavan Sukhdev et al., TEEB—The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity for National and International Policy Makers—Summary: Responding to the Value of Nature, Bonn: TEEB, 2009.

400.  Pavan Sukhdev et al., TEEBThe Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Mainstreaming the Economics of Nature, a synthesis of the approach, conclusions and recommendations of TEEB, Bonn: TEEB, 2010.

401.  Boris Worm, “Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services”, Science, Vol. 314, no. 5800, (November 3, 2006): 787–790.

402.  Craig Welch, Sea Change: Food for Millions at Risk, The Seattle Times, December

21, 2013, http://apps.seattletimes.com/reports/sea-change/2013/sep/11/pacific-ocean-perilous-turn-overview/

403.  FAO and World Bank, The Sunken Billions: The Economic Justification for Fisheries Reform, Rome, Washington, DC, 2008.

404.  See e.g., Thomas Elmqvist et al., “Patterns of Loss and Regeneration of Tropical Dry Forest in Madagascar: The Social Institutional Context”, PLoS One, vol. 2, no. 5, (May 2, 2007).

405.  FAO and UNEP, Vital Forest Graphics, Rome: FAO, 2008.

406.  Laurel Neme, “Chaos and Confusion Following Elephant Poaching in a Central African World Heritage Site,” National Geographic Onlinehttp://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2013/05/13/chaos-and-confusion-following-elephant-poaching-in-a-central-african-world-heritage-site/, retrieved Dec 2013.

407.  About UN-REDD, see: http://www.un-redd.org/aboutun-reddprogramme/tabid/102613/default.aspx.

408.  Minang, P. et al., Forestry and REDD in Africa, Joto Afrika Journal, no. 4, September 2010, http://www.ids.ac.uk/go/idspublication/forestry-and-redd-in-africa-joto-afrika

-issue-4

409.  Rosemary Lyster et al., Law, Tropical Forests and Carbon: The Case of REDD+, Cambridge University Press, 2013, and Johan Eliasch et al., Climate Change: Financing Global Forests, London, 2008, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/228833/9780108507632.pdf

410.  Luca Tacconi, Payments for Environmental Services, Forest Conservation and Climate Change: Livelihoods in the REDD, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011.

411.  Randall Abate, Climate Change and Indigenous Peoples: The Search for Legal Remedies, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, see also http://no-redd.com/

412.  Suzanne Collins, Hunger Games, New York: Scholastic Press, 2010.

413.  United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables, Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.227, 2013.

414.  Thomas Wiedmann et al., “The material footprint of nations”, PNAS online, (September 3, 2013).

415.  “Elephant Massacre at World Heritage Site – Time to End Wildlife Crime,” May 10, 2013, http://www.wwf.org.uk/

 

Eleven Action Potentials

416.  Nicholas Stern, A Blueprint for a Safer Planet: How We Can Save the World and Create Prosperity, London: Vintage, 2010 and Eric Beinhocker et al., The carbon productivity challenge: Curbing climate change and sustaining economic growth, McKinsey Global Institute, 2008 and CDP, How climate change action is giving us wealthier, healthier cities, London, 2013, https://www.cdp.net/CDPResults/CDP-Cities-2013-Global-Report.pdf

417.  US military spending in 2010 amounted to 663.8 billion dollars; the figure agreed on in Copenhagen ran to 3.6 billion dollars for three years.

418.  21st Conference on Climate Change in Paris 2015: http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/french-foreign-policy-1/sustainable-development-1097/events-2130/other-events/article/cop21-facts-french-ameri-can

419.  Christian Schwägerl, “UN Climate Summit Needs an Overhaul,” Spiegel Online, December 10, 2010, http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/inside-the-chain-link-fence-un-climate-summit-needs-an-overhaul-a-734008.html

420.  Vladimir Vernadsky, Geochemistry and the Biosphere, Santa Fe, NM: Synergetic Press, 2007.

421.  Andrew C. Revkin, “Building a ‘Knowosphere,’ One Cable and Campus at a Time,” New York Times, Dot Earth Blog, January 4, 2012, http://dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/01/04/welcome-to-the-knowosphere/

422.  B.F. Skinner, Walden Two, Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, 1948.

423.  Jørgen Randers, Systematic Short-termism: [Climate] Capitalism and Democracy, http://www.2052.info/systematic-short-termism-capitalism-and-democracy/, retrieved December 2013.

424.  Suzanne Goldenberg, Just 90 companies caused two-thirds of man-made global warming emissions, November 20, 2013, The Guardian and Richard Heede, “Tracing anthropogenic carbon dioxide and methane emissions to fossil fuel and cement producers, 1854–2010”, Climatic Change, vol. 122, issue 1-2, (January 2014): 229–241.

425.  Baron d’Holbach, The System of Nature or, The Laws of the moral and physical world. Translated from the original French of M. de Mirabaud, London: Thomas Davison, 1820, available online http://www.philosophy-index.com/d-holbach/system-nature/i-vi.php

426.  Christopher Boyce et al., “Money and happiness, rank of income, not income, affects life satisfaction”, Psychological Science, vol. 21, no. 4, (April 2010): 471–475 and Cameron Anderson, “The Local-Ladder Effect Social Status and Subjective Well-Being”, Psychological Science⁄, vol. 23 no. 7, (July 2012): 764–771.

427.  Chen-Bo-Zhong and Sanford DeVoe, “You are how you eat—fast food and impatience,” Psychological Science, prepublication online, (March 19, 2010), http://pss.sagepub.com/content/21/5/619

428.  David Linden, The Compass of Pleasure, London: Penguin, 2012.

429.  Even President George W. Bush described America’s dependency on crude oil as an “addiction”: see http://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/01/world/americas/01iht-state.html?pagewanted=all

430.  Ramón y Cajal, Degeneration and Regeneration of the Nervous System, Oxford University Press, 1928.

431.  Steven Goldman and Fernando Nottebohm, “Neuronal production, migration, and differentiation in a vocal control nucleus of the adult female canary brain,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 80, no. 8, (April 1, 1983): 2390–2394 and Fred Gage et al., “Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus,” Nature Medicine, vol. 11, 1998, p. 1313–1317 as well as Gerd Kempermann and Dan Ehninger, “Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus,” Cell and Tissue Research, vol. 331, no. 1, (2008): 242–250.

432.  See Mark Hübener et al., “Experience leaves a lasting structural trace in cortical circuits,” Nature, vol. 457, (January 15, 2009): 313-317 and Ulman Lindenberger, “Comparing memory skill maintenance across the life span: preservation in adults, increase in children,” Psychology and Aging, vol. 23, no. 2, (2008): 227–238.

433.  Paul Baltes et al., Lifespan development and the brain: The perspective of biocultural co-constructivism, Cambridge University Press, 2006.

434.  Dorothy Blair and Jeffory Sobal, “Luxus Consumption: Wasting Food Resources Through Overeating,” Agriculture and Human Values, vol. 23, no. 1, (2006): 63–74.

435.  Jenny Gustavsson et al., Global losses and food waste, (Rome: FAO, 2011) http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/mb060e/mb060e00.pdf

436.  Anthony J. McMichael, “Food, livestock production, energy, climate change, and health,” The Lancet, vol. 370, (October 6, 2007): 1253–1263.

437.  For an overview on this subject, see: Wilfred Rickels et al., Large-scale intentional interventions into the climate system: Assessing the climate engineering debate, scoping report conducted on behalf of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Kiel Earth Institute, 2011; Philip Rasch et al., “An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, vol. 366, (November 13, 2008): 4007–4037; J. J. Blackstone/J. Long: “The politics of geoengineering,” Science, vol. 327, no. 5965, (January 29, 2011): 527; Paul J. Crutzen, “Albedo enhancement by stratospheric sulfur injections: A contribution to resolve a policy dilemma?”, Climatic Change, vol. 77, no. 3-4, (August 2006):211–219; Richard S. Lampitt et al., “Ocean fertilization: a potential means of geoengineering?,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, vol. 366, (November 13. 2008): 3919–3945.

438.  Natasha Gilbert, “Future funding for agricultural research uncertain,” Nature, published online 31 March 2010, http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100331/full/news.2010.165.html and Bruce Campbell et al., “Legislating change,” Nature, vol. 501, (September 26, 2013): 12–S14; Helen Thompson, “Food science deserves a place at the table,” Nature, (July 12, 2012), http://www.nature.com/news/food-science-deserves-a-place-at-the-table-1.10963

439.  Jeffrey Mervis and David Malakoff, “U.S. Budget Deal Offers Researchers Some Sequester Relief”, Science, vol. 342, no. 6165, (December 20, 2013): 1426–1427.

440.  IEA Report for the Clean Energy Ministerial, Global Gaps in clean energy R&D, Update and Recommendations for International Collaboration, Paris, 2010, http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/global_gaps.pdf

441.  Michael Morris et al., “The Global Need for Plant Breeding Capacity: What Roles for the Public and Private Sectors?,” Horticultural Science, vol. 41, no.1, (February 2006).

442.  Michael Morris et al., Ibid.

443.  Mike Frick and Eleonora Jiménez-Levi, 2013 Report on Tuberculosis Research Funding Trends, 2005-2012, Treatment Action Group, New York, November 2013, http://www.treatmentactiongroup.org/sites/g/files/g450272/f/201310/TAG_TB_2013_8.5.pdf and Path, From Pipeline to Product: Malaria R&D funding needs into the next decade, Seattle, December 2013, http://www.malariavaccine.org/files/RD-report-December2013.pdf

444.  Euan Nisbet, “Earth monitoring: Cinderella science,” Nature, vol. 450, (December 6, 2007): 789–790.

445.  Steve Connor, Gaps in data on Arctic temperatures account for the ‘pause’ in global warming, The Independent, November 17, 2013, http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/gaps-in-data-in-arctic-temperatures-account-for-the-pause-in-global-warming-8945597.html

446.  Emma Marris, Rambunctious Garden, op cit., see Footnote 233

447.  Tobias Rapp, Christian Schwägerl and Gerald Traufetter, “The Copenhagen Protocol: How China and India Sabotaged the UN Climate Summit,” Spiegel Online, May 5, 2010, http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/the-copenhagen-protocol-how-china-and-india-sabotaged-the-un-climate-summit-a-692861.html

 

Twelve Anthropocene Day

448.  On the Ford Nucleon: http://www.damninteresting.com/the-atomic-automobile/; on settlements in outer space: http://settlement.arc.nasa.gov/; on robots as inhabitants of Los Angeles in the year 2013: http://documents.latimes.com/la-2013

449.  Relevant examples are plentiful including holism in nineteenth and early twentieth-century Germany (see Anne Harrington, Reenchanted Science: Holism in German Culture from Wilhelm II to Hitler, Princeton University Press, 1999) and the large-scale technological project of using biofuels made from farm crops to solve the energy problem (see Paul Crutzen et al., “N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 8, January 29, 2008:389–395.)

450.  For a fair dose of pessimism, see my second book 11 drohende Kriege: Künftige Konflikte um Technologien, Rohstoffe, Territorien und Nahrung (11 Looming Wars, Future conflicts over technologies, resources, territories and food), written with Andreas Rinke, Munich: C. Bertelsmann, 2012.

451.  For current readings, see http://www.stateair.net/web/post/1/4.html. The reading in Shanghai on the 22 December 2013 at 7 o’clock in the morning, for example, was 583, a value classified as “Beyond Index”. For readings between 301 and 500 the following warnings apply: “Hazardous. Serious aggravation of heart or lung disease and premature mortality in persons with cardiopulmonary disease and the elderly; serious risk of respiratory effects in general population. Everyone should avoid all outdoor exertion.”

452.  Peggy Liu, China dream: a lifestyle movement with sustainability at its heart, theguardian.com, June 13, 2012, http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/china-dream-sustainable-living-behaviour-change

453.  Vic Li and Graeme Lang, “China’s ‘Green GDP’ Experiment and the Struggle for Ecological Modernization,” Journal of Contemporary Asia, vol. 40, no. 1, (2010): 44–62.

454.  Sun Xiaohua, “Call for return to green accounting,” China Daily, April, 19, 2007 and Fergus O’Rorke, “China’s revived Green GDP program still faces challenges,” March 28, 2013, http://www.cleanbiz.asia/news/chinas-revived-green-gdp-program-still-faces-challenges

455.  Steffen Bauer, Dirty, not Sexy: Soils are in Need of Attention, Bonn: German Development Institute, December 3, 2012, http://www.die-gdi.de

456.  Panarchy has nothing to do with anarchy. Instead, it is about joint power over all the system’s divisions. See Lance Gunderson, Crawford Stanley Holling, Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems, New York: Island Press, 2002.

457.  A start, if somewhat eager to please: AshEl Eldridge, “Plastic State of Mind,” music video on YouTube.com.

458.  This is not entirely far-fetched, as William K. Reilly, Republican and former Environmental Protection Agency boss and President, George H.W. Bush, explained to me in an interview: Christian Schwägerl, “Germany Is on the Right Track: A Republican Environmentalist Finds Green Nirvana,” Spiegel Online, April 21, 2011, http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/germany-is-on-the-right-track-a-republican-environmentalist-finds-green-nirvana-a-758580.html

459.  On the alternative by the name of “Chimerica” see Christian Schwägerl, “Chimerica against the world,” Spiegel Online, December 17, 2009. http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/stalling-in-copenhagen-chimerica-against-the-world-a-667626.html

460.  There are already several attempts to set up new prosperity indicators as an alternative to GDP: for example, the Inclusive Wealth Index (http://inclusivewealthindex.org/), Bhutan’s Gross National Happiness (http://www.grossnationalhappiness.com/) or the Better Life Index from the OECD (http://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/).

461.  Mirjam Staub-Bisang, “Public pension funds: sustainable investment pioneers,” The Guardian, August 8, 2013, http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/public-pension-funds-sustainable-investment-pioneers

462.  Malte Meinshausen et al., “Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2°C,” Nature, vol. 458, (April 30, 2009): 1158–1162, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v458/n7242/full/nature08017.html and IPCC Report 2013, and IPCC http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1/

463.  Lisa Gansky, The Mesh: Why the Future of Business is Sharing, New York: Portfolio Hardcover, 2010 and Rachel Botsman, What’s Mine is Yours: The Rise of Collaborative Consumption, New York: Harper Business, 2010.

464.  See: Kristofor Husted, “Seattle’s First Urban Food Forest Will Be Open To Foragers,” NPR News, March 1, 2012, http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2012/02/29/147668557/seattles-first-urban-food-forest-will-be-free-to-forage; David Tracey, Urban Agriculture: Ideas and Designs for the New Food.

465.  Korea: http://ecomobilityfestival.org/; Bogota: http://www.ifhp.org/ifhp-blog/mobility-bogot%C3%A1; Copenhagen: http://copenhagenize.eu/; London: http://www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/Cycling%20Vision%20GLA%20template%20FINAL.pdf; San Francisco: http://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/San-Francisco-bicycle-boom-follows-bike-friendly-5060338.php#photo-5591168

466.  Some car makers already develop integrated systems where cars are produced with renewable energy, can run on renewable energy and are integral part of a network of buses, bikes and other means of transport.

467.  See: Turning urban infrastructure into Art, http://www.fastcoexist.com/3017462/turning-urban-infrastructure-into-art?utm_source=facebook#2

468.  What can happen in this case is shown in this wonderful film “Play Again,” http://playagainfilm.com/

469.  Taras Grescoe, Bottomfeeder: How to Eat Ethically in a World of Vanishing Seafood, New York: Bloomsbury, USA, 2008.

470.  German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU), Governing the Marine Heritage, Berlin 2013, http://www.wbgu.de/en/flagship-reports/fr-2013-oceans/

471.  For further reading, see: Jim al-Khalili, The House of Wisdom: How Arabic Science Saved Ancient Knowledge and Gave Us the Renaissance, Penguin, 2012.

472.  Rattan Lal et al., Recarbonization of the Biosphere: Ecosystems and the Global Carbon Cycle, Berlin: Springer, 2012.

473.  Austria is one of the countries that already works with farmers to monitor biodiversity changes: http://www.biodiversitaetsmonitoring.at/

474.  For a research project in biomining, see http://www.helmholtz.de/en/artikel/biomining-metal-extraction-with-bacteria-1788/

475.  Peter Styring and Daan Jansen, Carbon Capture and Utilization in the Green Economy, The Centre for Low Carbon Futures, 2011.

476.  For the link between the environmental crisis and military conflict, see among others UNEP Year Book 2010 at http://www.unep.org/yearbook/2010; Tom Spencer et al., Climate Change & The Military: The State of the Debate, prepared for the IES Military Advisory Council, December 2009, http://www.envirosecurity.org/cctm and German Advisory Council on Global Change, World in Transition: Climate Change as a Security Risk, Flagship Report 2007, Berlin, 2007, http://www.wbgu.de/fileadmin/templates/dateien/veroeffentlichungen/hauptgutachten/jg2007/wbgu_jg2007_engl.pdf

477.  Critical analysis by Manuel Maqueda at http://kumu.cc/2013/03/27/those-crazy-plastic-cleaning-machines/ but his objections can be overcome if these machines are self-sufficient. It is better, of course, to reduce plastic pollution at source or to recycle plastic in social projects. See: http://plasticbank.org/

478.  In Hamburg a building with a façade made of algae was built in 2013: see Taz Loomans, “The World’s First Algae-Powered Building Opens in Hamburg,” April 14, 2013, http://inhabitat.com/the-worlds-first-algae-powered-building-opens-in-hamburg

479.  http://conservationdrones.org/

480.  For a depiction of the current worldwide network of environmental monitoring systems, see: http://thingful.net/

 

Epilogue Deep Future

481.  Eli Kintisch, “The Geopolitics of Geoengineering,” MIT Technology Review, December 17, 2013, http://www.technologyreview.com/review/522676/the-geopolitics-of-geo-engineering/

482.  See also the outstanding book by Eli Kintisch, Hack the Planet, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley 2010; Corner and N. Pidgeon, “Geoengineering the climate: the social and ethical implications,” Environment, vol. 52, (January-February 2010): 24–37, 2010 and the Report Governing Geoengineering Research: A Political and Technical Vulnerability Analysis of Potential Near-Term Options, RAND/TR-846-RC, 2011.

483.  Will Steffen, Paul J. Crutzen and John R. McNeill, “The Anthropocene: Are Humans Now Overwhelming the Great Forces of Nature?” op. cit., see Footnote 237.

484.  For contemporary artistic interpretations of the Anthropocene, see for example the works of Yesenia Thibault-Picazo (http://yeseniatp.com/), David Thomas Smith (http://cargocollective.com/dtsmith/ANTHROPOCENE), Edward Burtynsky (http://www.edwardburtynsky.com/), David Schnell (http://www.eigen-art.com/index.php?article_id=92&clang=1), Vincent Fournier (http://www.vincentfournier.co.uk/site/), Natalie Jeremijenko (http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/30/magazine/the-artist-who-talks-with-the-fishes.html?_r=0 and http://www.ted.com/talks/natalie_jeremijenko_the_art_of_the_eco_mindshift.html), Jens Harder (http://www.hardercomics.de/) and J. Henry Fair (http://jhenryfair.com/aerial/).

485.  For the long version of the interview, see Nina Möllers and Christian Schwägerl, “Welcome to the Anthropocene—Our Responsibility for the Future of Earth”, Munich: Deutsches Museum, 2014.

486.  Curt Stager, Deep Future, op.cit., See footnote 141

487.  NASA model of the collision with the Andromeda nebula: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/science/milky-way-collide.html

488.  Jason Palmer, “Hope dims that Earth will survive Sun’s death,” New Scientist, February 22, 2008, http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn13369-hope-dims-that-earth-will-survive-suns-death.html

489.  Baron d’Holbach, The System of Nature or, Laws of the Moral and Physical World, op. cit., see Footnote 425.

490.   An inkling of these can be found in the futuristic videos by the artist Stefan Larsson, for example, “Circular Confabulation” (http://vimeo.com/18295577) and KIIA (http://vimeo.com/6796931).

491.  Michel Houellebecq, The Possibility of an Island, London: Vintage International, 2007; Kurt Vonnegut, Galápagos, New York: The Dial Press, 1999; Steven Spielberg, A.I. Artificial Intelligence, Amblin Entertainment, 2001.

492.  Andrew C. Revkin, “Puberty on the Scale of a Planet.” New York Times, Dot Earth, August 7, 2009.

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